The technology incorporated in the Hazelett twin-belt copper anode casting machine has evolved over decades of innovative engineering and design in our shops and in those of our partners where casting trials are conducted. Each new caster incorporates the latest mechanical, electrical, and process improvements and delivers ever-increasing production volumes and product quality.


Hazelett twin-belt caster for copper anode - core machine


Process control

Diagram of the electromagnetic metal level indicator (EMLI) system

To accommodate casting speeds of 13 meters (42 feet) per minute or more and accurately control metal flow rates of up to 60 tonnes per hour, Hazelett uses an electromagnetic level indicator (EMLI®) system to sense the pool level in the caster. A proportional signal is provided, which actuates the stopper rod to control metal flow from the lower launder into the tundish. Casting speed is held constant and the caster can be run in a completely automatic mode. The caster pool level can be held within +/- 2.5 mm along the belt using the EMLI system, which is a significant improvement compared to manual or optical control.

EMLI sensor position within Hazelett copper anode caster

Cast-in lug dam blocks

cast-in lugs

The use of special dam blocks that contain built-in molds for the anode lugs allows the Hazelett caster to continuously cast copper anodes with correctly dimensioned lugs. This eliminates the need to cast each anode in its own separate mold.

The position of the lug pocket mold is accurately controlled through thermal expansion and contraction of the dam block chains. The anode-handling lugs are cast in mold pockets machined into the side dam blocks. The lugs are one-half the thickness of the anode with a beveled lower surface creating a "knife edge" for positive electrical contact with the refining cell bus bar.


The continuously cast anode plate is sheared into perfect anodes by a synchronized moving hot shear supplied by our partner SMS Group GmbH, followed by cooling and stacking. No additional machining or straightening is required.